Biography of Ibn Khaldun


Ibn Khaldun as a reformer in historical writing had quite unique life background. Before entering the world of scientific knowledge, Ibn Khaldun was a brilliant political adventurer, who lived from one dynasty to another and from a ruler to a ruler of others in the same dynasty. 

Being opportunistic (opposing) is the color of his life as a political actor (politician). Viewed from Islamic history, ibn Khaldun (XIV century), was a century of Islamic decline, a time of the progress and success of Islam had passed before Ibn Khaldun was born,  from the VII century to the XII century  (Yazwardi, 2002: 57).

Ibn Khaldun's full name is Abdurrahman Abu Zaid Waliuddin ibn Khaldun. His nickname is Abdurrahman, the family nickname is Abu Zaid, while his popular name is Ibn Khaldun. 

Ibn Khaldun's name itself is a name associated with his grandfather's line named Khalid ibn Usman. Ibn Khaldun's grandfather was the first to enter Andalusia, with Arab conquerors. 

Khalid ibn Usman was known as Khaldun according to the custom of the Andalusians and The Maghribi people, who are used to adding waw letters )و (and nun (ن ,(behind the names of prominent people as a tribute, as Khalid became Khaldun (Ali Abdulwahid Wafi, 1985: 3 - 4).

Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis at the beginning of Ramadan 732 AH or 27 May 1332 and comes from a family of Andalusian descent from the southern region of Egypt (Ismail Ya‟kub, 1982: 2). Ibn Khaldun's family was born in the city of Qarmunah, Andalusia, in this city settled Ibn Khaldun's grandfather named Khalid bin Usman. 

Ibn Khaldun's family was a descendant of a Yemeni, Hadramaut. Some members of this family traveled all the way to Hejaz, together with the Arabs who fought and conquered the lands of Islam (Fathiyyah Hasan Sulaiman, 1987: 11 - 12).

Ibn Khaldun's family is better known as Bani Khaldun, Bani born and raised in the town of Qarmunah, Andalusia. 

It is in this city that Khalid bin Usman (the ancestors of the Banu Khaldun), residing, then migrating to Isybilia.

The Bani Khaldun was only known after muwahiddun's weak reign, the situation in Andalusia was shaken and most of its cities and ports fell into the hand of king Castille (Fathiyyah Hasan Sulaiman, 1987: 12). 

Ibn's second grandfather Khaldun (Abu Bakr Muhammad), appointed interior minister Tunisia, while his first grandfather (Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Muhammad), sitting as a minister who patronizes the hijabah (doorman), for judge Bijayah of the Hafsi people. In the end, his second grandfather became the governor who ruled Tunisia after the fall of king Hafsiyun, while his first grandfather continued to rule Bijayah long enough and moving-moving from one position to another, under the king -king bani Hafs.

Ibn Khaldun's first grandfather (Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Muhammad ibn Khaldun), this has a son named Abu Abdillah Muhammad, who was Ibn Khaldun's father. Abu Abdillah's not working into politics and more likely to enter the world of science knowledge (www.lakpesdam.or.id, accessed January 20, 2009).

Abu Abdulah Muhammad died in 749 AH / 1339 AD and left five sons, namely: Abdurrahman (author of Muqaddimah), who at the age of 8 years, Umar, Musa, Yahya, and Muhammad (son of eldest), among them who always went hand in hand with Abdurrahman the author of Muqaddimah, only Yahya (Abu Zakaria Yahya) ministerial position.

Ibn Khaldun's father is a scholar who is a member of knowledge - knowledge religion because many of Khaldun's cubs become scholars famous in Morocco and Andalusia before that. 

Among them is Umar bin Khaldun (died three centuries before the birth of Ibnu Khaldun, who was famous in knowledge - mathematics and astronomy knowledge. 

Thus the family of Ibnu Khaldun has an important role in the world of politics and knowledge (Ali) 
Abdulwahid Wafi, 1985:10).

As is common in Islamic countries, as a child Ibn Khaldun memorizing the Qur'an and studying its tajwid. 

Mosque when it was a place of effective learning. There Ibn Khaldun learned to read and recite the Qur'an and obtained other knowledge from his teacher. Mosque ibn Khaldun learned to recite the Qur'an, which is the mosque of al-Quba.

Ibn Khaldun's study phase, passed in a period of 18 years, namely between 1332 - 1350 AD. 

Ibn Khaldun's father was the first teacher to have educated him teaching the basics of Islam (Bayu Rohmato, 2008: 39).

Tunisia is the headquarters of clerics and writers in Maghribi, where gathered Andalusian clerics fled due to various events. From the scholars -this scholar, Ibn Khaldun studied the science of syar‟i, proficient in the field of poetry, philosophy, and mantiq (logic), so many of his teachers who admired Ibn Khaldun's cleverness (Fathiyyah Hasan Sulaiman, 1987: 13).

It was in this environment that Ibn Khaldun received his education religion, language, poetry, logic, philosophy. Education obtained from the teacher looks deep though scholastic. (Fuad Baali &Ali Wardi, 1989: 9).

In his youth, Ibn Khaldun was educated in highly cultured communities. Ibn Khaldun's father, a minister during the Hafside dynasty in Tunisia, Ibn Khaldun's father was a literary expert, who had accompanied in the study, until his death from contracted bubonic plague in 1349 AD (Ismail Yakub, 1982: 3).

Ibn Khaldun in addition to studying at his father, Ibn Khaldun also studied language to a number of teachers, most importantly: Abu Abdillah Muhammad Ibn al-Arabi al-Hashayiri, and Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn al-Qushsar, and Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Bahr. 

As for studying hadith, Ibn Khaldun studied at Syamsuddin Abu Abdillah al-Wadiyasyi. 

About Fiqh, Ibn Khaldun studied with a number of teachers, including Yalah Abu Abdillah 
Muhammad al-Jiyani and Abu al-Qosim Muhammad al-Qashir. 

This is the case with by studying rational or philosophical sciences, namely theology, logic, science 
- natural sciences, mathematics, and astronomy, to Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Abili, Ibn Khaldun greatly admired his last teacher (Zainab al-Qudhairi, 1985: 10).

Written by: Ulis Dwi Wardani

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